We used generalized linear models with Poisson error structure to model excess mortality rates. Excess mortality was 0.82 deaths per 100 person-years for all-cause mortality, 0.11 for liver, 0.08 for non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs), 0.08 for non-AIDS infections, and 0.02 for cardiovascular-related causes.

Lower CD4 count and higher HIV viral load, lower education, being male, and over 50 years were predictors of overall excess mortality.

In the multivariable models, we included all the prognostic factors with ).

Further, to investigate whether the effects of the prognostic factors on overall and cause-specific excess mortality differed by follow-up interval, interaction terms between follow-up intervals and prognostic factors were tested.

Source of funding: The RIS cohort (Co RIS) is supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III through the Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Sida (RD06/006 and RD12/0017/0018) as part of the Plan Nacional R D I and cofinanced by ISCIII-Subdirección General de Evaluación y el Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER). Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article.

Short-term (first year follow-up) overall excess hazard ratio (e HR) for subjects with AIDS at entry was 3.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 5.19) and 1.37 (95% CI 0.87, 2.15) for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected; medium/long-term e HR for AIDS at entry was 0.90 (95% CI 0.58, 1.39) and 3.83 (95% CI 2.37, 6.19) for HCV coinfection.

Liver excess mortality was associated with low CD4 counts and HCV coinfection.

We used multivariable generalized linear models with Poisson error structure to estimate both the excess mortality rates (e MRs) in HIV-positive patients compared with the general population and the excess hazard ratio (e HR) for potential prognostic factors.

This latter estimation should be interpreted as a common HR, but in terms of excess mortality.

Excess mortality rate associated with being HIV-positive is defined as the difference between the death rate observed in the cohort and the expected death rate in the general population.

The expected number of deaths was calculated by applying the mortality rates of the general population to the person-years (py) distribution of the HIV cohort matched by age, sex, and calendar year at risk.

Whereas most available data on excess mortality refer to all-cause mortality, less data are available on the cause-specific excess mortality associated with being HIV-positive.