The Safavids, alongside their Ottoman archrivals, dominated the entire West Asian region and beyond for centuries.

At its peak under Shah Abbas the Great, it surpassed its political and ideological archrival the Ottoman empire in military strength.

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However, despite pockets of continued resistance, the majority of the inhabitants of Azerbaijan converted to Islam.

Later, in the 10th and 11th centuries, parts of Azerbaijan were ruled by the Kurdish dynasties of Shaddadid and Rawadid.

After the collapse of the Russian Empire during World War I, the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic was declared, constituting what are the present-day republics of Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.

This was followed by March Days massacres Independent Azerbaijan lasted only 23 months until the Bolshevik 11th Soviet Red Army invaded it, establishing the Azerbaijan SSR on April 28, 1920.

Conversion to Islam was slow as local resistance persisted for centuries and resentment grew as small groups of Arabs began migrating to cities such as Tabriz and Maraghah.

This influx sparked a major rebellion in Iranian Azerbaijan from 816–837, led by a local Zoroastrian commoner named Bābak.The Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906–11 shook the Qajar dynasty.A parliament (Majlis) was founded on the efforts of the constitutionalists, and pro-democracy newspapers appeared.After the Safavid state disintegrated, it was followed by the conquest by Nader Shah Afshar, a Shia chieftain from Khorasan who reduced the power of the ghulat Shi'a and empowered a moderate form of shi'ism, and, exceptionally noted for his military genius, making Iran reach its greatest extent since the Sassanid Empire.The brief reign of Karim Khan came next, followed by the Qajars, who ruled Azerbaijan and Iran from 1779.Caucasian Albania's ruler, King Urnayr, went to Armenia and then officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the fourth century AD, and Albania remained a Christian state until the 8th century. Muslim Arabs defeated the Sassanids and Byzantines as they marched into the Caucasus region.