Initially, prosperity was reduced due to the fact that the city remained only the capital of a powiat, while the capital of the voivodship was moved to Białystok.However, in the late 1920s the city became one of the biggest Polish Army garrisons. Also, the city was a notable centre of Jewish culture, with roughly 37% of the city's population being Jewish.

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In the course of the Battle of Grodno (September 20–September 22), the Red Army lost some hundred men (by the Polish sources; by the Soviet sources - 57 killed and 159 wounded) and also 19 tanks and 4 APCs destroyed or damaged.

The Polish side suffered at least 100 killed in action, military and civil, but losses still remain uncertain in detail (Soviet sources claim 644 killed and 1543 captives with many guns and machine guns etc. Many more Poles were shot in mass executions after being imprisoned.

; see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.

It is located on the Neman close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania (about 20 km (12 mi) and 30 km (19 mi) away respectively). It is the capital of Grodno Region and Grodno District. At this year Grodno was mentioned in the Primary Chronicle as Goroden' and located at a crossing of numerous trading routes, this Slavic settlement, possibly originating as far as the late 10th century, became the capital of a poorly attested but separate principality, ruled by Yaroslav the Wise's grandson and his descendants.

This declared its independence from Russia in March 1918 in Minsk (known at that time as Mensk), but then the BNR's Rada (Council) had to leave Minsk and fled to Grodno.

All this time the military authority in the city remained in German hands.

It was in the New Castle on November 25 of that year that the last Polish king and Lithuanian grand duke Stanisław August Poniatowski abdicated.

In the Russian Empire, the city continued to serve its role as a seat of Grodno Governorate since 1801.

During the Polish Defensive War of 1939 the garrison of Grodno was mostly used for the creation of numerous military units fighting against the invading Wehrmacht.

In the course of the Soviet invasion of Poland initiated on September 17, there was heavy fighting in the city between Soviet and improvised Polish forces, composed mostly of march battalions and volunteers.

Since 1413, Grodno had been the administrative center of a powiat in Trakai Voivodeship.