By the end of the century, medical professionals began to understand the anatomy of the uterus and the physiological changes that take place during labour.The introduction of forceps in childbirth also took place during the 18th century.These lying-hospitals were establishments where women would come to have their babies delivered, which had prior been unheard of since the midwife normally came to home of the pregnant woman.

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During this time the mother is monitored for bleeding, bowel and bladder function, and baby care. Certain things must be kept in mind as the physician proceeds with the post-natal care.

Prior to the 18th century, caring for pregnant women in Europe was confined exclusively to women, and rigorously excluded men.

All these medical advances in obstetrics were a lever for the introduction of men into an arena previously managed and run by women—midwifery.

The addition of the male-midwife is historically a significant change to the profession of obstetrics.

Genetic screening for Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and trisomy 18, the national standard in the United States, is rapidly evolving away from the AFP-Quad screen for Down syndrome, done typically in the second trimester at 16–18 weeks. Ultrasound is also used for detecting congenital anomalies (or other foetal anomalies) and determining the biophysical profiles (BPP), which are generally easier to detect in the second trimester when the foetal structures are larger and more developed.

The cost is higher than an "AFP-quad" screen due to the ultrasound and second blood test, but it is quoted to have a 93% pick up rate as opposed to 88% for the standard AFP/QS.Other tools used for assessment include: Induction is a method of artificially or prematurely stimulating labour in a woman.Reasons to induce can include pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, placental malfunction, intrauterine growth retardation and failure to progress through labour increasing the risk of infection and foetal distresses.Obstetrics prior to the 18th and 19th centuries was not recognized as a specific specialty. and early second century he studied anatomy and had opinions and techniques on abortion, contraception –most notably coitus interruptus– and birth complications.However, the subject matter and interest in the female reproductive system and sexual practice can be traced back to Ancient Egypt Soranus of Ephesus sometimes is called the most important figure in ancient gynecology. After the death of Soranus, techniques and works of gynecology declined but very little of his works were recorded and survived to the late 18th century when gynaecology and obstetrics reemerged.The expectant mother would invite close female friends and family members to her home to keep her company.